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System may be seen as a Combination of Interrelated Elements, or sub-systems, organised in such a way that efficient functioning of the system a a whole, is ensured, necessitating a high degree of coordination between the sub-system, each of which is designed to achieve a specified purpose, Systems are ‘synergistic’.
Synergy is used to describe the concept, which states that the sum of a whole of greater than the sum of individual parts. For example, the human body, communication, information, hospital, accounting, railway etc. a system could be open or close.
Systems that receive inputs from the environment and sometimes return outputs to the environment are called open systems. A systems is open if imports various items from its environment, convert them into Goods, Services and Waste Materials and them exports them into the environment. Here, information is considered as an open system because it interacts with the environmental factors such as: Social situation, government influences technology and physical environment (weather, location etc) which from the inputs to give output in form of products, services, ideas etc to environmental again.
Systems that Have Scaled Boundaries and neither receive input nor produce output are close systems. They are independent of their environment. Close systems are required for stability and consistency, whereas open systems are required for uncertain conditions. Close systems are designed for efficiency, open systems for survival. In Management education system, A system is a group of interrelated components working together toward a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organised Transformation Process. Such a system (sometimes called a Dynamic System) has following basic interacting components or functions:
Input: It involves capturing the data and assembling elements that enter the system to be for processed. For example, raw materials, energy, data and human efforts must be secured and organised for processing.
Processing involves transformation of process that converts Input into Output. Examples are a manufacturing process, the Human breathing process, or Mathematical Calculations.
Output: In this system, It involves transferring all elements that have been produced by a transformation process to their ultimate destination. For example, finished the all products, manage human services, and management information must be transmitted to their human users in management information education.
Example: A manufacturing system accepts raw materials a input and producers finished goods as output. An information system also is a system that accepts resources (data) a input and process them into products (information) as output.
Feedback and Control: A System with feedback and control components is sometimes called a cybernetic system, that is, a self-monitoring, Self-Regulating System.
Feedback is data about performance of a system. example, the data about sales performance in any organisation is feedback to a sales manager.
Control involves Monitoring and Evaluating Feedback to determine whether a system is moving monitoring towards the achievement of its goal. The control function then makes necessary adjustments to a system’s input and processing components to ensure that it produces proper output. For example, in management system, a sales manager exercises control when he or she reassigns salespersons to new sales territories after evaluating feedback about their sales performance.
Feedback is frequently included as part of the concepts of the control function because it is such a necessary part of its operation.
Example; A familiar example of a self-monitoring, self-regulating system is the thermostat controlled heating system found in many homes; it automatically monitors and regulates itself to maintain a desired temperature. In Management Information subsystem, Another example is the human body, which can be regarding as Cybernetic System that automatically monitors and adjusts many of its functions, such as temperature, heartbeat, and breathing.
A system does not exist in a vacuum rather, it exists and functions in and environment containing other systems. If a system is one of the components of a larger system, it is subsystem, and the Larger System in Environment. Also, its environment. Also, Management Education system boundary separates a system from its environment and other systems.
Example: Organizations such a Businesses and Government Agenciesare good examples of the systems in society, which is their environment. In Management business, Society contains a multitude of such systems, including individuals and their social, political and economic institutions. Organisations themselves consist of many subsystems, such as departments, divisions, process teams and work groups.
Management Information System, Organisations are examples of open systems because they interface and interact with Other Systems in their Environment. Finally, organisations are examples of adaptive systems, since they can modify themselves to meet the demands of a changing environment.
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