What is Meant By Booting Process in Computer Systems? Define its Categories

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The booting process can be taken as the process of starting the computer. This process is important as it is the process which loads the operating system into the computer’s internal memory. This is done by executing a program in the ROM, this program reads the operating system into the Random Access Memory, which now will be executed by the computer.
Quick looks at the various categories of the program which constitute the operating system which have their predefined roles to play in the functionality of the operating give the following categories:


Booting Process in Computer System Education 


Bootstrap Loader: This is the program which is usually stored in ROM and is responsible for the start of the computer system. This program reads the portion of the operating system, which store in the secondary memory devices into the internal memory, so that they can be executed. This program start working but computer is switched on.
Check Programs: These are the programs that are used for testing the operation of various system components. These are also known as Diagnostic tests, that they diagnosed any problem associated with the operation of the system components. Some of the common checks performed by these programs are checking the working of disk drives, checking of RAM, checking of memory, are checking of status etc. Some of these programs are stored in the Rom, which are executed automatically when the system is first turn on. For other programs users must load the check programs from the secondary memory and execute them. Thus these programs are used for various checks.


Monitor program: This is the program which is used to control the activities of the system. This is also called as Operating System Executive. When a user request for execution of the programs, this monitor program schedules the execution of programs and assigns various tasks to the hardware devices. When the computer is switched on, this program is Read into RAM, so that it takes control of the system. Most of the current day computers allow execution of several programs simultaneously. Which is given in shape by monitor programs which are very sophisticated, and the operating systems which are capable to do this type of processing are known as multitasking Operating System.
Basic Input/output System Programs: These programs are used for controlling the most rudimentary functions of hardware components and devices of the computer system. For controlling these hardware components they used low level routines. The following are some of the basic control functions that are done by BOIS programs, so that the basic input and output operations can be given a proper shape:
Reading a key press i.e., a character from input device like keyboard. Writing a character on the video display unit or other output devices, checking whether the output devices are busy, Retrieval of data from disks. Update/Erase of the data.
Apart from above, BOIS perform various other functions which have a direct link to the input and output devices. The user or the programmer need not worry about these functions as they are usually stored in Read Only Memory, thus available forever to the user.
Support or Utility Programs: The operating system should, apart from carrying basic functions, should also help a user by giving him a support by providing him with various Housekeeping Utility Programor support programs, so that the task of the user becomes easy. Some of the functions are controlled by this utility support functions are as following:
Display of the contents of the disk, Formatting a disk with so that it can store data copying data, Copying data from one disk to another,Creating a backup from the hard disk contents in order to tackle any, Untoward damages to the hard disk, If hard disk crashes, it has to be restored using backup copy, Checking the memory space available on the disk, password authentication check, so as to give security to the system.
File Maintenance Programs: User to store data, programs and other information in files and all the operation on the data are done usually through files. Therefore, these files have to maintain and managed so that they are consistent. The file maintenance program has used to maintain files by providing them facility to create, read and write files. These operations are done while with the help of routines which have to be called from the user programs.


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