As each inhabitant of the earth has a right to live in the healthy environment, it meets environmental awareness internationally essential its. Ernst Hackers in 1859, kindled the era of environmental awareness in the world. Since then, several attempts have been made at International as well as national level to protect and improve the quality of environment. The first ever international convention on environment was held at London in 1933. The focal theme of the convention was preservation of Fauna and Flora and it was attended by representative of 50 Nations since then more than 130 International agreements on Environment have been signed and more than 115 countries have set up National environmental Institutes. The United Nations has established the United Nation environmental program to stimulate environmental work. WHO, FAO, ILO, IAEO, OECD AND EC Have shown great concern in the improvement of environmental quality.
Environmental Awareness and Ethics- Need Education in Usa
The two most important milestones in the international efforts towards environment having the 1972Stockholm Conference and the 1992 Rio-de-Janeiro (Brazil) Earth Summit. Principal 1 of the Stockholm declaration is called the Magna Cartaof environment. It declared, (a) every man has the fundamental right to freedom, equality and advocate conditions of life in the environment of a quality that permits alife of dignity, and (b) everybody has the responsibility to protect and improve the environment for present and future generation. The Earth Summit, 1992 which was attended by more than 100 world leaders and 30000 delegates from 178 countries, laid down 27 principles (known as agenda for 21st century) which are reproduced below:
Principal 1: Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development they are added to a healthy and product life in harmony with nature.
Principal 2: States have in accordance with the charter of the United Nation and the principles of international law, and soverign right to exploit their own resources pursant to their own environmental and development policy and the responsibility to ensure that activities with their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other state or of area beyond the limit of National jurisdiction.
Principal 3: The right of development must be fulfilled so as to equatably meet development and environmental needs of present and future generations.
Principle 4: In order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it.
Principle 5: All state and all people shall corporate in the essential task of eradicating poverty as an indispensable to requirement for sustainable development, in order to decrease the disparity in standard of living and better meet the needs of the majority of the people of the world.
Principle 6: The special situation and needs of development developing countries, particularly the least developed and those most environmentally vulnerable, shall be given special priority. International action in the field of environment and development should also address the interest and need of the all countries.
Principle 7: State shell corporate in spirit of global partnership to conserve protect and restore the health and integrity of the earth ecosystem. In the view of the different contribution of to global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities. The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the International pursuit of sustainable development in the view of Pressures their society place on the global environment and of the Technologies and financial services they command.
Principle 8: To achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life for all people, States should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and promote appropriate demographic policies.
Principle 9: States should corporate to strengthen endogenous capacity-building for sustainable development by improving scientific understanding through changes of scientific and technological knowledge and by enhancing the development, adoption, diffusion and transfer of Technologies including new and innovative Technologies.
Principle 10: Environmental issue or best handled with the participation of all concerned citizens at the relevant level at the national level each individual you’ll have appropriate access to information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities including information on hazardous materials and activities in the community and the opportunity to participate in the decision making process state and encourage peopleawareness and participation by making available. Effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings including redress and remedy be provided.
Principle 11: States well in enact effective environmental legislation. Environmental standards, management objectives and priorities should reflect the environmental and developmental context to which they apply. Standard supplied by some countries maybe in inappropriate and of the unwanted economic and social cost to other countries in particular developed countries.
Principle 12: State Should corporate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to economic growth and sustainable development in all countries, to better address the problems of environmental degradation. Trade policy measure for environmental purpose should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade.Unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of the importing countries should be avoided. Environmental measures addressing trans-boundary or global environmental problems should, as far as possible, be based on an international consensus.
Principle 13: State shall develop National Law regarding liability and compensation for the victims population and other environmental damage. State shall also co-operate in an expeditious and more determined manner to develop further International Law regarding liabilityand compensation for adverse effects of environmental damage caused by activities within their safety or control to area beyond their jurisdiction.
Principle 14: States should effectively corporate to discourage and or prevent the relocation and transfer to other state of any activities and substances that cause severe environmental degradationor the found to be harmful to human health.
Principle 15: In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threads of series or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.
Principle 16: National authority should add endeavour to promote the internationalisation of environmental cost and the use of economic instruments, taking into account the approach that the polluted should, in principle, bear and the cost of population, with due regard to public interest and without distorting international trade and investment.
Principle 17: Environmental impact assessment, as a national instrument, shall be undertaking for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of completed national authority.
Principle 18: States shall immediately notify other state of any natural disasters or other emergency that are likely to produce sudden harmful impact effect on the environment of those states. Every effort shall be made by the international community to help state so affiliated.
Principle 19: States shall provide Prior and timely notification and relevant information to potential affected States on activities that may have a significant adverse trans-boundary environmental effect and shall consult with the state that and every stage and in good faith.
Principle 20: Women have a vital role environmental management and development their full participation is, there fore, essential to achieve sustainable development.
Principle 21: The creativity, ideals of courage of the youth of the world should be mobilised to forge a global partnership in order to achieve sustainable development and install a better future for all.
Principle 22: Indigenous people and their communities and other local communities have a vital role n environmental management and development because of their knowledge and traditional practices. States should recognised and duly support their identity, culture and interest and enable there is active participation in the achievement of sustainable development.
Principle 23: The environment and Natural sources of people under oppression, domination and occupation shall be protected.
Principle 24: Warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development, states shall, therefore, respect International Law providing protection for the environment in times of armed conflict and corporate in its further development as necessary.
Principle25: Peace, development and environmental protection are inter-depended and indivisible.
Principle 26: State shall resolve all the their environmental dispute peacefully and by appropriate means in accordance withthe charter of the United Nation.
Principle 27: States and people shall corporate in good faith and in the spirit of partnership in the fulfilment of the principal about it in the declaration and in the further development of international law in the field of sustainable development.
The above declaration by adopted by 178 countries at the behest of United Nations. Most of the participating Nations, including India have been already initiated follow up by Asian in the central governmentorganisation department and non government social and political organisation working for protection and Awareness of the environment.