The nature of environmental problems is different in developed and under developing societies. The environmental problems in developed countries have emerged due to the advancement of scientific and technological development, whereas is endorsement countries, the environmental problems have arising largely due to lack of development or in other words due to both rural and urban poverty, poor water supply, housing facilities, speculation and nutrition facility and also be sickness diseases and natural disasters.
Today, the world world, particularly the developing countries are facing a near crisis situation, both economic and environmental. The words economics and ecology have the same root, oikos (meaning house). While economics deals with the financial housekeeping, ecology deals with environmental housekeeping. Time has now come when sustainability development has to enter in our planning processes.
Threat to the Environment: There are two major threat to the environment Possible nuclear war and the demographic pressure due to population explosion. These two factors led to over-utilisation of natural resources and harnessing the forces of nature of the use of growing human population. The net result is spread of desertification, soil maladies, floods and the Droughts, urban congestion, extinction of species and pollution of land, water and air. Therefore, this is high time, we work for environmental management that is proper resources use and sources management. In Indian context, the following are the causes of environmental problem where priority action is needed. population explosion, loss of biological diversity, water exploitation of non-renewable energy system, lack of environmental education and awareness, lack of implementation of environmental laws.
Environmental impact assessment: Industrialisation had been a mixed blessing. If we trace the history of human being, it should be clear that there had been tremendous environmental impacts of industrialised societies. Agriculture industry and mining had very harmful impact on our environment. Such impacts lead to degradation of our land, forest, water, air and biological diversity by release of noxious Chemicals and other factors.
We know that all the development had been at a tremendous environmental cost. In our country, in the pos- independent period our ideas but dominatedby developmental growth and we did not have a culture of pollution control. Even late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru wrote in 1957 “we have many large scale river valley project which are carefully worked out why our engineers. I wonder however, how much thought is given before the project is launched to having an ecological survey of the area and to find out what the effect to the drainage system or to the flora and fauna of that area. It would be desirable to have such an ecological survey of these areas before the project is launched and thus avoid and in balance of nature. The total insensitivity at the bureaucratic/adminsrative level, which, persists still, have given the nation a very happy backlog of pollution and ecological degradation. They look immediate money in destruction of environment and not in conserving it. We must reserve this picture. This is huge backlog of our 40 years of negative environmental impact of developmental work. These are to set right. It is desirable to have an idea of the possible impact of any developmental plan it is going to have on our environment. Fortunately, advocate legislation could be brought into force to make proper assessment of all such environmental impacts.
Objectives of environmental impact assessment
The objective of Environmental Impact Assessment is to insure the Gulf mental is sustained with minimal environmental degradation.The ministry of Environment and Forest Government of India has been assigned the responsibility for carrying out environmental impact assessment of developmental project in various sectors such as multipurpose river valley and irrigation projects, thermal and atomic power Industries, mining, ports and harbours transport etc.
In order to ascertain the impact of various developmental project both on the society as well as on land, water,air, flora and funua etc., the developmental projects are required to prepare and environmental impact statement covering the following ; Effect on land degradation and subsistence, on deforestation and compensatory afforestation, air and water pollution including groundwater pollution, noise and vibration flora and funua and loss of biological diversity, socio-economic including human displacement, cultural loss and health aspects, risks analysis and disaster management, efficient use of inputs.