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Treatment of Water: Sewage and factory wastes should be treated to clean them before their release into the water courses. There are three steps for the treatment of sewage:
Primary Treatment: This includes physical processing such as flotation sedimentation, filtering, shredding. These processes remove suspended wastes and make water good fertilizers.
Secondary treatment: There are two ways for secondary treatment: Tricking Filter Method: when sewage water is passed through primary treatment, then it is passed through a thick layer of gravel o small stones. The water which carries out of the gravel is much cleaner which is further sent for chlorination to kill microbes. Activated sludge method: After primary sewage water id pumped into an aeration tank and then mixed with air and sludge containing algae and bacteria. Bacteria consumer organic matter. The water is now almost clear of organic matter and then chlorinated to kill microorganism.
Tertiary Treatment: This involves of nitrates and phosphates. After tertiary treatment, water is released and can be reused. Sewage treatment I expensive that is why is most the developing countries only two steps are followed. The treatment of industrial effluents consists of neutralization of acids and alkalies, removal of toxic compounds by chemical oxidation, coagulation of colloidal impurities, precipitation of metallic comp and cooling of waste water. Industries should be made legally bound to treat the waste water before discharge.
Noise Pollution: Sound in the main means of communication, in many animals including humans. A loved, unpleasant sound or an unwanted sound is called noise. Noise causes physical pollution that affects man directly without affecting the life-supporting systems. Sources of Noise Pollution: The main sources of noise pollution are modern industrialization such as, textile mills, printing presses, metal works etc., transport vehicles, a agricultural machines, defense equipment, explosion, domestic gadgets, public address systems and demonstrations.
Effect of noise pollution: The different effects are categorized as: a) Auditory effects b) Non-auditory effects
a) Auditory effects: These include auditory fatigue and deafness. Deafness can be caused due to continuous noise exposure. Permanent loss of hearing takes place at 100 db.
b) Non-auditory effects: It includes i) interference with speeds communication, ii) loss of working efficiency, iii) annoyance, IV) physiological disorders.
Control on Noise Pollution: Three types of measures can be adopted to control noise pollution: reduction of noise at the source, check on noise transmission and protection of man against noise. There are following ways to control and reduce the noise pollution:
i) At source control: This can be done by designing and fabricating and silencing devices in air-craft engines, automobile industries and have appliances.
ii) Transmission control: This can be achieved by covering the room walls with sound absorbers as acoustic tiles.
iii) To create vegetation cover: Plants absorbs and dissipates sound energy and thus act as buffer zone. Ashok, Neem, Termed etc, are good for the purpose.
Noise Pollution through law: Adequate restriction must be put on unnecessary use of herm and vehicles plying without silencers. There is Indian Penal Code that has some provisions to which resort can be made on the ground of nuisance.
Design by Mohit Bhardwaj
- Resources Development and Environment
- Ground Water Pollution in many States in India