According to Michael J. Jucious, personnel management should aim at:
- Attaining economically and effectively the organizational goals,
- Serving to the highest possible degree the individual goals, and
- Preserving and advancing the general welfare of the community.
Personnel Management has been assigned the task of not only helping the organization and its employees but also the society at large. The objectives of personnel management are as follows:
Enterprise Objectives In Personnel Management
The primary objective of personnel management is to help in achieving organizational goals. There will be need for co-operation from everyone in the organization for achieving business goals. This requires that such persons should be employed who are capable of taking up the jobs assigned to them. They should also be given proper training for undertaking the work effectively.
This will be ensured by a suitable policy of recruitment, training and placement. The satisfaction of employees should be ensured to get their wholehearted co-operation. This may be done by looking after their convenience at work and offering them financial and other incentives. The enterprise objectives will only be achieved if everybody works for its attainment. Employees should be motivated to contribute their maximum to the Organizational Goals.
Personnel Objectives In Personnel Management
Personnel Management Aims at giving the material and mental satisfaction to each employee in the organization. This will be possible only when employees are provided with proper work environment and job satisfaction, the work place should be neat and clean and properly ventilated. Job satisfaction will include good remuneration, job security, avenues for promotion, financial and other incentives for improving performance.
Social Objectives In Personnel Management
Personnel management also aims at preserving and advancing general welfare of the community. An enterprise owes a responsibility to the society at large. It can serve the society by creating more employment opportunities, producing quality goods at cheap rates. It can also help society by using productive resources in the best possible way and minimizing their waste.
History of Personnel Management
There seems to be a lot of confusion and a plain lack of awareness of what Personnel/Human Resource Management is and how it can contribute to an organization. To clear this confusion, we must through the historic origins of personnel of personnel management followed by the evolution of the concept of HRM in India.
Modern Personnel Management has emerged through many stages, which may be explained as follows:
The Industrial Revolution was characterized by rapid technological change and increased specialization. The place of work shifted from residence to factory and the employers lost personal touch with their employees. Specialization increased speed and efficiency but left workers with boring, dull and monotonous jobs.
Workers were treated like ‘glorified machine tools’. Employees were keen to meet production targets rather than satisfy worker’s demands. Labour was looked upon as a commodity rather than living things. Due to the then prevailing political philosophy of ‘Laissez Fair’ government did very little to protect the interest of the workers.
As a consequence of industrial revolution, workers joined hands to protect themselves against the exploitative tendencies of employers and the prohibitive, unfair labour practices through unions. The basic philosophy underlying trade unionism was that through collective bargaining the management could be forced to redress their grievances. Unions tried to improve the lot of workers through collective bargaining, resolving the grievances of workers relating to working conditions, pay and benefits, pay and benefits, disciplinary actions etc.
To improve efficiency and speed, F.W. TAYLOR advocated Scientific Management. Scientific management consists of the following:
Systematic analysis and breakdown of work into its smallest mechanical elements and rearrangement them into their most efficient combination.
Individuals selected to perform the tasks should be perfectly matched, physically and mentally, to the requirements of the task as far as possible and that overqualified individuals should be excluded.
Employees should be trained carefully by supervisors to ensure that they perform the task exactly as specified by prior scientific analysis.
Incentives should be provided to the employees to follow the detailed procedures specified by the supervisors.
Scientific management had a great influence on management, particularly on employer-employee relations. It led to professionalization of management. But Critics Of Scientific Management pointed out that focus was more on technology and not a human factor in industry.
Human Relations Movement
Hawthrone experiments conducted by Elton Mayo and his Harvard colleagues during 1930s and 1940s and subsequent research focused attention on the attitudes and feelings of workers and their influence on productivity. While scientific management viewed an organization as a techno-economic system the Human Relations Movement considered it as a social system. It was suggested that inter-personal relations should be improved to realize full potential f individuals and groups. Human and social factors exercised greater influence on employee morale and productivity than working conditions. This movement was also influenced by the growing strength of unions during the late 1930s and 1940s.
Human Resource Approach
The human resource approach assumes that the job or the task itself is the Primary Source Of Satisfaction And Motivation to the employees. The emphasis in this approach is on individuals involvement in the decisions made in the organization.
The behavioral science era led to the development of new techniques of motivation and leadership e.g. job enrichment, employee participation, two way communication, and management by objectives etc. Abraham Maslow, Dougles McGregor, Frederick Herberg, Rensis Likert and others made significant contributions to the development of the behavioral science approach to the study of management.
This approach has developed a useful way of thinking, about the role of the manager, the nature of organizations and the behavior of the individuals within and organization.
Personnel Specialist and Employee Welfare
With the dawn of welfare era, the scope of personnel management increased. It was not only concerned with recruitment, selection and training of employees. It began to manage Employee Benefit Programs and industrial relations system in industry.