Environmental awareness at mass level has been the Prime agenda for Ministry of environment and Forest, Government of India. The national environment awareness campaign promoted by Ministry of Environment and Forest has successfully encouraged many NGOs who primary concern or ruler development, appropriate Technology, civil rights, women development, tribal welfare, afforestation etc. The NGOs are broad based and range from Club which encourage and assist in Adventure Travel, exploration and dissemination of knowledge on ecosystems to Agencies dealing with creation of employment, wastelands development, afforestation, rehabilitation of tribal and preparation of educationalmaterials and aids.
Majority of villages, particularly those situated in hilly areas are facing problems of drinking water, food security, firewood scarcity etc. Further, the hilly terrain face inherent problems of soil erosion due to the removal of vegetation to meet firewood requirements as well due to shifting cultivation. The voluntary agencies or NGOs at the village level address these problems by closely involving village communities, particularly the women. It is necessary to create awareness program highlightingthe reason for this problem in the villages and the offers to suitable training to the villages to tackle them. The voluntary Agencies make inverted images through undertaking pivot project in the sensitive areas, with the financial assistance of different finding agencies. The experience and knowledge gained through implementation of such project should be disseminated to the villagers by organising workshop and orientation program that provide better management practice cultivation technique and other related activity to benefit the overall development of the villages. Some field demonstration project may be worth initiating on a priority basis. A partnership with the locals to must be built up for the Holistic development of the area adopting suitable protected. The locals must be involved in the planning process local resource utilisation and to develop the area to meet the requirement of food grains, drinking water and fire wood as well as fodder for the livestock.
NGOs also played important role for conservation of environment by initiating certain public movements like “Chipko Movement” for the conservation of forests in the Gopeshwar and “Narmada bachao Andolan” was organised by NGO called kalpavriksh etc.
Chipko Movement was started in the year 1972, in the upper reaches of Uttar Pradesh Himalayan region, Tehri Garhwal. In the hilly areas, heavy flash flood and land sliding became common feature due to felling of forest trees by the contractors. The men folk opposed this large scale deforestation but never got success, then the women folk of the villagers came out of their holes and hugged the trees to home contractors came to cut. The movement was conducted under the leadership of Sunder Lal Bahuguna, and environmental list and journalist. The Chipko movement succeeded and following are the result of this movement ; Contractor system abolished by the Government. Uttar Pradesh Forest Department Corporation department formed which worked for the Welfare of hilly areas and the population residing there. It shows down the process of deforestation. Awareness has been created in other states also, for example, same type of movement called Appiko movement started in Karnataka Also. It enlightened people about the necessity of ecological balance in the nature. It has exposed the vested interest involved in the mass destruction of forests. Supreme Court of India in 1991, instructed the various stages to make all curricula environment oriented. This decision was given in the response to Public Interest Litigation filed by M.C. Mehta vs. Union of India (1988).
Use of Audio-media in Creating Awareness
The use of multimedia in creating awareness, about the environment is very effective method. The traditional method of formal teaching in schools may not create any impact on the children. The use of other told viz., slides, video films, puppet shows, Street plays, field, trip, essay and painting competition and practical project all are also necessary for sustaining the interest of school children. The concept of do yourself can have a long lasting effect on them. Villages level meeting and field demonstration are effective in the ruler areas. Radio and TV or other useful media in spreading the voice message. Progressive farmers can play a significant role in influencing other members of their community, a well-designed training course should be adopted for creating awareness. Publication and documentary filmsmust be shown in to orient the children, educated people individual worker, farmers and other for keeping the environment clean and healthy.