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There are many acts regarding mining sector that regulate harmonization of mineral development with environment. These acts are follows: a) Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (EPA) b) Forest Conservation Act, 1980 c) MNRD Act Wild Life Act, 1972 d) (preventive and Control of pollution Act, 1974 and e) Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1981
Exploration and mining on forest land requires prior permission of the Government under the provision of the Forest Conservation Act, 1980. EPA provide for the prospecting and mining activates only with prior permission form the ministry of Environment and Forests for all mining projects over 5 hectares of area or in all cases in which an existing mining lease in excess of 5 hectares in area in proposed to be further expanded. The mine owner needs do submit the baseline information. Environment impact Assessment (ELA) and Environment Management Plan (EMP) to Ministry of Environment for site clearance and environment clearance.
The Government in exercise of its power under MMRD Act has been comprehensive provisions under the Mineral Conservation and Development Rules,1988,for environment protection. The License/ lessee duty bound the Mineral Conservation and Development Rule to prepare and get approved a mining plan. Under rules following actions must be taken as precautions:
Removal and storage of the top soil, overburden waste and sub-grade material.
Reclamation and rehabilitation of lands.
Precaution against air pollution, water and noise pollution.
Discharge of toxic fluids.
Restoration of flora and fauna.
National Mineral Policy 1993: The national mineral policy, 1993 marks a radical departure from the long standing policy of the Government of India to keep the exploration and exploitation of minerals exclusively within to public sector. The exploitation of key minerals like iron ore, manganese, chrome, sulphur, gold, diamond, copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, tungsten, nickel and platinum have been thrown open do private enterprise. The basic objectives of mineral policy will be as follows: a) to explore for identification of mineral wealth in the land and in offshore areas. b) Do ensure adequate supply and the best use of minerals, keeping in view the present need and future requirement. c) To provide research and development of minerals. d) to promote necessary linkages for smooth and uninterrupted development of minerals policy industry to meet the needs of the country. e) Do minimize the adverse of mineral effects of mineral development on forest, environment and ecology through appropriate and protective measures. f) To ensure conduct of mining operations with due regard to safety and health of all concerned.
The National Mineral Policy, 1993 for iron fuel andnat non-atomic minerals, prohibits mining operations in identified ecological fragile and biologically rich areas and strip mining in forest areas as far as possible. The mining in forest area could be permitted if it is accompanied by a comprehensive time bound reclamation program me. It further states that no mining lease would be granted to any party, private or public, without a prior mining plan including the environment management plan should have adequate resources for minimizing the environmental damage, restore station will proceed concurrently with mineral extraction. Efforts should also be made to convert old mining site into forests and other forms of land use.
A mineral conservation measure involves their recycling and reuse. In recycling, used and discarded items are collected , re-melted and reprocessed into new products, e.g., iron scraps, aluminum, cans etc. Some Minerals present in products can be recycled e.g., gold, lead, nickel, steel, copper, aluminum, silver, zinc etc., however minerals in other products are lost through normal use, such as paints containing lead, zinc or chromium. During reuse, used products are collected and used over and over again, e.g., reuse of glass bottles. The benefits of reuse are grater than those of recycling. All products, however, may not be reused. Recycling and reusing not only renew the mineral resources, but also help in a) Saving unspoiled land from the disruption of mining b) Reducing the amount of solid waste that must be disposed, and Reducing energy consumption and pollution.
Design by Mohit Bhardwaj
- Forest Conservation and Major Causes of Deforestation
- Treatment of Water, Noise Pollution and Control on Noise Pollution