The ultimate source of nitrogen to the ecosystem in molecular nitrogen in the atmosphere. In which cannot be directly metabolized by plants and animals. All the nitrogen the nitrogen accumulated in biomass, detritus and humans in various ecosystems, is derived from the atmosphere by biological activities of several free-living and symbiotic nitrogen fixing microbes.
The nitrogen cycle involves following five steps:
1. When any organism dies or excretes waste products, the nitrogen compounds pass into the soil or water.
2. Certain bacteria break down this organic nitrogen compounds and convert them into ammonia.
3. This ammonia is converted into soluble ammonia compounds which get ionized to give ammonia ions.
4. Some nitrifying bacteria convert ammonia to nitrite while other converts them to nitrite.
5. Highly soluble nitrites dissolved in the soil water or taken up by the roots of the plants.
Carbon Cycle: Carbon cycle is present in the variety of carbohydrates, facts, proteins and nucleic acids. The basic movement of carbon is from the atmospheric reservoir, to ensure and from both these groups to decomposers and then back to the reservoir. The main source of all carbon found in the living organism in free atmospheric carbon dioxide and dissolved carbon dioxide in water.
Phosphors Cycle: Phosphorus is the major constituent of nucleic acid, cell membrane cellular energy transfer system, bones and teeth. Rocks and nature phosphates deposits are the main reservoirs of phosphorus. From the deposit, the Phosphors four is released by wear hearing reaching the end the mining of Agricultural purposes. Some of it each passing through, the terrestrial and fresh water ecosystems. The Phosphate is transferred to consumers and decomposers as organic phosphate and subsequently is made available for recycling via Mineralizing and decomposition.
Biotic Communities: In natural habitat, population of various plants, animals and microorganisms live together. All such populations together constitute biotic community of the habitat.
Species Interaction: Members of the biotic community in an area are depended on each other’s. The independent is reflected in their interaction mainly for food, space, reproduction and production and protection. Food interactions are reflected in trophic structure (food chains).
The interactions between population of species is a community are broadly, categorized into positive and negative interactions, depending upon the nature of effect on the interacting organisms.
Positive Interaction: In positive interaction or Symbiosis one or both the spices are, benefited. It is of following types:
Mutualism: mutualism is functional association of two species, in which both pieces are associated. Example; rhizobium is living in root nodule of legume.
Commensalism: Communalism is relationship between two species, where once period is benefited, while the other niters’ gets any neither benefit, nor advisory affected. Example: association of sucker fish, (gets production and movement) and shark.
Proto Co-operation: In this both population gained by the association of some kind. Example: Sea ammonia (gets transported) and hermit crab (get production).
Competition: In competition, both species suffer adverse effect it occurs due to short supply of food, space, light etc.
Predation: Interaction between species involving killing and conjunction of prey is called perdition. The Spices that eats the other is called Predators and the one consumed is called prey. for example ; Tiger (Predator) keeps check on their prey population.
Parasitism: It is associated with species which live together and one drives its nourishment the expense of the other.