a) Hardware: computers hardware is the collection of various components of the computer, like the computers itself, the input output devices, printers and other peripheral devices. This computer hardware blindly performs some other basic operations like addition, subtraction, data transfer, control transfer and simple tests. These components are tangible, which one can see and feel. To enhance the capabilities of the hardware and to perform computers operations, we need to rake help of software components.
b) Software: Software is set of instructions usually termed as programs which are required for processing activities of the computer. These set of programs can be used to solve real world problems. The capabilities of computer depend largely on the software component. Software refers not only to the programs which make the computer work, but also those are used to solve real life problems.
For comparison, we can look forward to the compare computers with human beings. Hardware can be compared to the human body which is capable to do any activity but without the presence of blood and oxygen it will not be able to do anything. The same is the case with computer hardware, it is capable to do many things but without software it cannot do the desired things.
Thus, for a computer, both hardware and software components are essential.
Organization Of Computer In Computer Study
The organization of a computer can be well understand with the help of a logical block diagram of the computer, which illustrated the carried components and their connectivity with the flow of the process, which helps in computing. The following illustrates a comprehensive Block Diagram of the Computer:
Input Unit: for the computer work upon you need to give instructions as well as the data to work upon. These devices translate data from human understandable form into electronic impulses which are understood by the computer. The most common input device is a keyboard. This device is similar to the normal typewriter, using which programmer types the instructions for any task he wants to do. These instructions are called programs.
Central Processing Unit (CPU): Once the data is accepted it is fed into Central Processing Unit before the output is generated as a data has to be processed, which is done by CPU. The unit of the computer is the brain of computer system, which does all the processing, calculations, problems solving and controls all functions of all other elements of the computer. The CPU consists of the following theses distinct unit namely:
c) The Arithmetic and Logic Unit
1. Memory Unit: This is the unit where the data and result are stored. The function of this unit is to remember the instructions and data. The data stored can be accessed and used whenever required by the CPU for necessary processing. This unit consists of cells which are capable to store unit of information. These cells can be accessed as they are numbered sequentially, which are called addresses. This memory unit is usually referred as primary storage section. The unit in which memory unit is measured is known as bytes. A byte is the space required to store 1 character of alphabet or digit or any other special character.
1 byte (typical 1 keystroke) = 8 bits
1 megabyte =1024 kilobyte
Where bits are spaces required to store binary digits that is either 0 or1.
Control Unit: This is that unit of CPU, which co-ordinates all the activities of each and every element of the computer. It decodes the instructions given by various users and it sends commands and signal that determine the sequence of various instructions. Though this unit was not processed data but it acts as the Central system for the data manipulation, as it controls the flow of data to and from the main storage.
Arithmetic and Logic Unit: This unit performs the arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It also does logical operations such as comparison of numbers etc. Thus, this unit helps by the processing data and taking logical decisions.
Output Unit: After processing the data, the computer has to provide the result of processing to the user. For this, computer using output devices. The output devices is that device which is use to provide the user with the desired output. Commonly used output devices are VDU (visual display unit) i.e. monitor, printers (line printer, character printer etc), plotter, magnetic media like floppy, hard disc etc.
Thus, computer performs all the required functions and processing using the above unit. We can say that the units are integral part of computer system.