Water is mainly present in two forms i.e. ground water and surface water.
Ground water: Ground water constitutes the 9.86% of total fresh water resources. The water transmits to ground through aquifers. The aquifer is the layer of sediment rock which is highly permeable contains and transmits water. Sand and gravels are also examples of good aquifers.
Crystalline rocks (like granite) and clay show very low permeability to water. Aquifers are of two types.
Unconfined Aquifers: in this case permeable earth materials are laid on them. They get recharged by rain fall and snow melt due to deeding down of water.
Confined Aquifers: Such aquifers are sandwiched between two permeable layers of rock and sediments.
Ground Subsidence: it occurs when ground water withdrawal is more than its recharge rate leading to sinking and overlying land surface, structural damage in building and total flooding etc.
Surface Water: It is available in the foams of streams, lakes, ponds, wetlands or artificial reservoirs. Surface water accumulates when rainfall and snow (precipitation does not percolate down in ground. Surface water is used for irrigation, industrial used, public water supply and navigation etc.
Forms Problem Conservation
The water use has been increased globally by 48 percent per year since 1950. Approximately 70 percent of total water is accounted by agriculture, only about 1.1 percent is used for domestic and municipal; supplies and the rest of consumed by various industries, such as cement, mining, pharmaceutical, detergent and leather industry.
Nearly 40% of the world’s population lives in arid or semi-arid regions. These people spend substantial amounts of time, energy and effort in obtaining water for domestic and agricultural uses. To meet the needs of huge population, surface water (Ponds, rivers, lakes etc) are overdrawn. Due to over use of surface water, the nearby water lands, may dig up. When more ground water is removed for human use that can be recharged by rainfall ground or snow-melt, the ground may also dry up.
Excessive irrigation is semi-arid and arid regions can cause salt accumulation in the soil, due to which crop productivity may decline. The continuous depletion of ground water along the coastal regions often leads to the movement of saline sea water into fresh water wells, spoiling, and their water quality. Estuaries become more saline and consequently less productive when surface water is overdrawn. Further heavy rainfall results in rapid runoff from areas having exposed soil, particularly on mountain slopes. This may results in soil erosion as well as also put low land at extreme risk of destruction due to flooding uncontrollable soil erosion results in sedimentation of water ways that can harm fishers.
Due to unabated competing demands for various sectors of water users and disposal of wastes from various sources viz, industrial and agricultural activities, human settlement etc, results in deterioration of water quality and decline in water quantity. Further, like other development countries India is the midst of massive urbanization. The increasing population and urbanization along with associated activities leads to the paucity of water resource.
Conversion and Management Of Water
Conversion can be classified as “the management of resources for the benefit of all life including humankind of the biosphere so that it may yield sustainable benefit to the present generation while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of the future generation.” Living resources conversion has three specific objectives:
a) To maintain essential ecological processes and life support system.
b) To preserve biological diversity and
c) To ensure that any utilization of species ecosystems are sustainable.
Conversion therefore makes important contributions to social and economic development.
The symptom of strain in terms of depletion and pollution of water due to unregulated multiple users of river stretches are already evident. Hence, it is important that a rationale is adopted for maintaining sustainable balance between the quality and quantity of water use.
From the very first five year plan, water conservation measures have been launched, with emphasis on development or technology for problem identification, formulation and implementation of problem oriented schemes. The small sponsored scheme of integrated water shed management in the catchments of flood-prone rivers of the Gangetic Basin covering seven States and one Union Territory, aims at enhancing the ability of the catchment by absorbing larger quantity of rainwater, reducing erosion and consequent silt load in the stream and rivers bed and thus helping to mitigate the fury of floods in the productive planes. A scheme of reclamation and development of ravines area was launched in 198788 in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. Later Gujarat was added. The components is peripheral binding to half further ingrate of ravines table and treatment, a forestation of ravines for fuel, fodder and reclamation of shallow ravines.
The main approaches for conversion of water are:
a) Reducing agriculture eater wastage by increasing efficiency of irrigation (by traditional method more than 50% of water is lost in air).
b) Reducing wastage of water in industry by recycling the used water.
c) Reducing domestic water wastage by constructing waste water treatment plants and recycling of treated water.
d) Rain water harvesting by employing practices to store rain water and recharge ground water.
e) A forestation and protection of water to improve water economy.