The database is collection of related records, which is stored centrally (even distributed) in computer electronically.
Database Management Systems, though a bit costly, offers a far better solution to the problems faced by the traditional file management systems. With the improvements in technology, the Hardware, Software, Networking and operating systems. Most of the short comings of Database management systems have been eliminated.
DBMS can be defined as an integrated software program, whose task is to manage the database, so that the users, at any given instance of time can connect to the database, retrieve data, add data, update data, delete data etc., with ease.
This acts as a bridge, which connects database to the users, in whose absence the Management of Database would have been a great task. The following figure gives the user interface for a DBMS software.
To access the data in the hardware (Stored in hard disk, the secondary storage database to be accessed, the fields to the accessed, the output format etc., which cannot directly interact with the data in the hard disk, therefore these application programs interact with DBMS, which provides the interface, and does the task of mediator between Data and Application Programs.
Users can be categorized into:
Ordinary Users: An ordinary user,is a user who writes application programs to interact with the database. He gives the details about the database to be accessed, the output format etc., by writing a program, using any of Application Development Programs and tools. He need to have programming skills and must be well versed with the working of the computer and database management system.
End Users: He is the person, who uses the applications developed. He need not know about the working, database design, the access mechanism etc., he just uses systems to get his task done. End users can be categorized into:
Direct Users: They are the users who use the computer, database systems directly, by following instructions provided in the user interface. They interact, using the application programs already developed, for getting the desired result.
Example: People at railway reservation booking countries, who directly interact with database, through already Developed Programsand do their job.
Indirect Users: They are the users, who derive benefit from the working of the DBMS indirectly. They use outputs generated by the programs for decision making or nay other purpose. They are just concerned with the output and are not bothered about the programming part. These users need not have knowledge about programming skills not the Working of the Software.
Example: The people, who use the Railway reservation charts, to know about the status of their reservation for the journey can be termed as indirect users. These people need not know about, how these charts are prepared etc.
He is the authority on deciding the structure, accessing strategies, storage criteria, user privileges, creating and deleting users, preventing database from threats etc. He is the person, who has all the privileges to access database, manipulate it and do whatsoever is necessary. He is assigned the task of maintaining database in good position. As his actions cost the system’s status, he need to posses very good programming skills, technical skills and excellent understanding of the database and its properties. The total responsibility of the database resets on the Database Administrator (DBA).
He is the person, who plays a major role in database design, its properties, the structure, the relations, the requirements etc., of the system. He is the person who does the initial study and prepares the System Requirement Statement, which involves the feasibility aspect, economic aspect, technical aspect etc of the system. He need to have both technical and understanding skills. He need to understand the system, its requirements its purposes, the organizations, where he is implementing the system etc.
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