Define Brief History of Computer in Full Details

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Ever since the man thought of Counting, he developed the concept of computing. His initial approach to accounting and data computations and their recording was with help of sticks, pebbles or lines on balls of caves. Then he moved towards counting using ten fingers of his hands, which probably is the basis of present decimal system. This quest of man for better computing and Hassle free process and device made him to work towards a device made him to work towards which could do all that he wanted in computing. There has been a series of devices, which were there before this revolutionary device could be invented. The devices like Abacus, Mechanical calculator, etc can be taken as predecessors for the modern day computer.


History of Computer System Full Education 


Man gradually developed mathematical ideas and went on inventing better tools for computation and calculations. The earliest computing device, which was used by Egyptians as early as 450 B.C. in Abacus. The Chinese version of abacus Bass beads on wires counting frame, which is still much in use of south East Asia, China and Japan. The first desk top calculator machine, which is capable to perform various arithmetic operations, was developed as early as 1642, which was pioneered by French Scientist Blaise Pascal (1623-1662). This calculating machine mainly consisted of gears and wheels for calculations and this machine could perform two basic operations i.e. addition and subtraction.
A German mathematician, Gottfried Leibnitz worked on improving this machine i.e. Pascal calculator for performing for basic arithmetic operations i.e. addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. He suggested that the use of Binary System instead of decimal system for the mechanical calculator.


 The word “computer” comes from the word “compute” which machine to calculate. This computer is normally considered as a device which performs arithmetic operation at enormous speeds, but it is even more efficiently used in the other areas which are not exactly related to arithmetic calculations.
The person whom we call “Father of Computers” is an English Mathematician,Charles Babbage, who was responsible for conceiving the anchester of the Modern Computer, his invention was a solution to a problem, which was being faced during 19th century i.e. even if utmost care was taken to prepare mathematical and statistical tables, human errors could not be eliminated. With this problem, Charles Babbage designed the early computer called “Differential Engine” in the year of 1822 which could not produce reliable tables. He improved this machine and came out with a new idea of “Analytical Engine in 1833 which could perform the basic arithmetic functions, which is intended to be completed automatic.  This machine used punch card as a input /output device for basic input and output. The basic feature of this machine are still found in most of the modern computers, this being the reason for which is he is known as “Father of Computers” for his remarkable contribution in field of computers.
In 1920, Leonardo Torres demonstrated a digital calculating machinein Paris. Konrad Juse, a German engineer developed computer systems, which are used binary number systems as well as a system which worked on the programs. He named them Z-1, Z-2, z-3 and Z-4, where Z-3 used the binary system and Z-4 was program controlled. The concept of punched cards which was used by Charles Babbage as input/ output media was developed further by Herman hollerith in the year 1889.
As the demand of punched card machine increased, there was a inadequacy of these machines for scientific computations and this demand led to the development of electromechanical calculator known as MARK-1, which was the first automatic general purpose computer which was able to do 3 addition’s per second, for multiplication it took about 4 seconds and it took about 11 seconds for division. This machine was designed by Professor Howard Aiken of Harvard University. This machine could handle about a sequence of 5 arithmetic operations by using memory of previous results. This was in 1944.
The first electronic computer, ENIAC (Electronic, Numerical Integer and computer) was designed in 1946. It has capability to perform about 5000 calculations per second. This was a huge computer which occupied by about 15000 square feet and weight about 50 tones. This was result of research done for U.S. army during World War-II in 1946.
Dr. John Von Newmann joined the ENIAC team. He proposed the idea of the storing the program with ABC proves that the sequence of instructions as well as data can be stored in the memory, So that the processes become automated.
After ENIAC that next development was electronic computer which based on John Von Newmann’s concept of stored program named as it EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) that this was in 1949, where both the operating instruction and data are stored in computer without human intervention.
Almost simultaneously with a EDVAC of U.S.A., the EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) was developed by British scientists headed by professor Maurice Wilkes at the Cambridge University. This machine capable to do mathematical operations which are executed in matter of issue microseconds. Then came in 1951, the commercial version of stored program computer UNIVAC-I (Universal Automatic Computer) which was first digital computer. This was the beginning of the computer era where the computer can be used for any purpose may it business or maybe scientific application.


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