With the environment becoming global, complex and more & more complex, the volume of the data being generated has been increasing manifold. This voluminous data has to be processed and organized in a meaningful form. If this processing would have been the same as old manual methods, with paper files, it would have become complicated and near to impossible task. But, with the computers coming into existence, the whole process of data collection, storage, processing and retrieval has become an easy task. Today, one cannot imagine a world without computers at their disposal.
The time consumed has also been to a great extent, thus the time saved can be utilized for more productive work, thereby increasing efficiency and effectiveness.
Apart from increasing efficiency and effectiveness, computers also have solved problems lie storage, risks, spoilage etc, which are related to paper files. Computers as well have helped human beings a lot by reducing his work through automation of many tasks.
Now, in these computers era everyone is moving towards of business activities with electronic data processing, setting up of various types of information systems etc. thus, and computerization of data processing is not only desirable but also essential as it save time, effort, money etc. which can be more effectively used for other major activities.
Information technology is not only used in commerce and industry, it has crept into almost all the activities of human life right from his personal life to health care, to entertainment etc. where it has created a new world in itself. We can thus probably and aptly term this era as on ‘Information Technology era’, as it is being transformed into an era of information technology. In this era of information technology, the concept of education also has revolutionized. The computer education has gradually become part and parcel of school education, college education s well additional specialized professional qualification. Now, in general we can call a person literate if he knows computer and its usage, else illiterate, as such as the importance which information technology education enjoys. Thus, information technology has been successful in spreading its influence in almost every aspect of life and business.
Computer and Information Technology have a carrier choice with large and varied openings into highly lucrative and remunerative industry; name any field, the computer plays its in it, thus it has become the trend of the day.
Components of Computer Systems/Information Technology
Computer alone cannot serve the purpose for which has been designed. It works in combination of other components of which are physical as well as some intangibles. The use and implementation of information technology involves various components of it, namely:
f) Communications (includes physical communication Networks)
a) Hardware: Hardware is those tangible components of a computer which one can see and feel. It includes input and output devices, central processing unit etc. which one can feel and see. These elements which make computer, a total machine which can process data and do many tasks. This components is like a physical human body, which is capable to any activity, it has the life and energy.
b) Software: software area the set of instructions or programs which are given to company so that it works and does the task. These are those intangible components of a computer which makes the tangible work. It is the life giving component of the computer.
c) Data: it is that collection of facts and figures, which has to be worked on by the computer. It is that collection which is the basis for decision making one does.
d) Users: These are those people who directly or indirectly are benefited by the use of computers. They are users of the final output as well as the providers of output and instructions sometimes.
e) Storage: This component is the one which enables the data and software component to make in place in the computer system by residing in various types of storage devices. The data storage component helps the raw as well processed data to be stored for further usage. This component is also known s memory.
f)Communications (Including Physical Networks): This is that component which enables a user to communicate with the computer as well as the computer to communicate with other computer to get various tasks done. These can be taken as various communication lines and protocols which help to communicate.
Components of Information Technology, Need of Computerization