The person whom we call “Father of Computers” is an English mathematician Charles Babbage, who was responsible for conceiving the ancestor of the modern computer, his invention was a solution to a problem, which was being faced during nineteenth century i.e., even if utmost care was taken to prepare mathematical and statistical tables, human errors could not be eliminated. With this problem, Charles Babbage designed the early computer called “Difference Engine” in the year 1822 which could produce reliable tables. He improved this machine and came out with a new idea of ‘Analytical Engine” in 1833 which could perform the arithmetic functions, which is intended to be completely automatic. This machine used punch cards as input/output devices for basic input and output. The basic features of his machine are still found in most of modern computers, the being the reason for which he is known as “Father of Computers” for his remarkable contribution in field of computers.
In 1920, Leonardo Tomes Demonstrated a Digital Calculating Machine in Paris
Kamred Zone, a German developed Computer System, which used binary number systems as well as systems which worked on programs. He named them Z-1. Z-2, Z-3 and Z-4, where Z-3 used to binary system and Z-4 was program controlled.
The concept of punched cards which was used by Charles Babbage as Input/output media was developed further by Harmon Hollerith in the year 1889.
As the decimal for punched cards machine increased, there was inadequacy of these machines for scientific computations and this demand led to the development of electro-chemical calculations known as MARK-1, which was the first automatic general purpose Digital Computer which was able to do 3 additions per second. For multiplication to take about 4 seconds and it took about 11 seconds for division. This machine was designed by Prof. Howard Aiken of Harvard University. This machine could handle about a sequence of 5 air thematic operations by using memory for results. This was in 1944.
The first electronic computer, ENIAC (Electronic Numeric Integer & Computer) was designed in 1746. It has capability to perform about 5000 calculations per second. This was a huge computer which occupied about 1500 sq. ft. and weighed about 50 tones. This was result of research done for U.S. army during World-war in 1946.
Dr. Johan Von Neumann Joined the ENIAC team. He proposed the idea of storing the program with a basic view that the sequence of instructions as well as data can be stored in the memory, so that the process becomes automated.
After ENIAC the next development was an electronic computer which is based on Johan Von Neumann’s concept of stored program named as EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) and this was in 1949, where both the operating instructions and data stored in computer without human intervention. Almost simultaneously with EDVAC of U.S.A., the EDSAC (Electrons Delay Storage Automatic calculator) was developed by British scientist headed by Professor Maurice Wilkes at the Cambridge University. This machine capable to do mathematical operations, which are executed in matter of a few micro seconds.
Then can in 1951 the commercial version of stored program computer UNIVAC-I (Universal Automatic Computer) which was first digital computer. This was the beginning of the computer era where the computes can be used for any purpose may it be business to May it be scientific application.