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The word pollution is derived from a Greek root meaning “defilement”. This can be defined as an under the table change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, water or land that will be harmful to human Body and other life’s, living conditions and cultural assets.
Basic Cause of Pollution: The basic cause of pollution is man himself. This has been caused through over use, misuse and mismanagement of natural resources to fulfill human needs. To some extent nature also contributes to pollution.
Types of pollution: Pollution is of three main types according to the part of environment Contaminated: Air pollution, water pollution and sound pollution, radioactive pollution and noise pollution are two more forms of pollution.
Air Pollution: it refers to the released in the atmosphere of materials are radiations that are harmful to man and other animals, plants. Man is the major cause of air pollution. Man has been polluting the air ever since he started using fire. Industrialization and invention of automobiles have speed up the pollution of air. Overpopulation, deforestation, nuclear explosion and explosive used in war are also contributing to air pollution.
They had add pollutants to the air at particular points from there tall Chimneys. These pollutants affect restricted areas only.
Automobiles are mobile sources of air pollution, towns and cities of the area of mobile sources of air pollution. They add smoke and gases from the fire over wide areas.
Gaseous pollutants: The oxidized of carbon, nitrogen and sulphar, hydrocarbon, photochemical oxidants and fluorides are the common gaseous pollutants.
Oxidizes of carbon are produced by smoking and burning of fossil fuels in houses, Industries, power houses and automobiles. CO accounts for over 50% of total air pollutants. If Co is in health, it selectively combines with hemoglobin and reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin. CO poisoning can lead to giddiness, laziness, exhaustion, reduced vision, nervous and cardiovascular disorder and even death. The carbon dioxide increases in the air may cause rise in atmosphere temperature. This may melt the Polar ice, causing rise in Ocean level and constraint flooding of towns.
Oxides of Nitrogen includes the two other nitrogen monoxide and Nitrogen dioxide and are released by automobiles and chemical industries and also by burning of materials, nitrogen oxide from about 10% of pollutants, nitrogen monoxide like carbon dioxide lower, the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Nitrogen dioxide irritates the eyes, nose, bronchial tubes and lungs. Its high concentration proves fatal.
Oxides of sulphur include Sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide. They are produced by burning of fossil fuel coal and while they form about 18% of total air pollutants. They may cause respiratory diseases (asthma, Bronchitis, emphysema) and eczema in man. The exhausts form Mathura Refinery or a threat to the Taj at Agra.
Hydrocarbons are composed of hydrogen and carbon. They are formed by incomplete combustion of fuel in automobiles. They are also formed from forest fire and by evaporation from petrol and organic solvents. In the presence of Sunlight, the hydrocarbon react with the Nitrogen dioxide farming very harmful Chemicals such as proxy cycle nitrate, ozone, aldehyde etc.
Photochemical oxidants are oxides of Nitrogen, in the presence of Sunlight, react with hydrocarbons of the air to form proxyacyl nitrate (PAN), ozone, aldeyde and some other Complex organic compounds in the air. PAN causes irritation of the eyes and throat and producers respiratory trouble in man.
Low concentration of ozone today produces chest pain, coughing and often eye irritation. While high concentration can kill both animals and plants.
Particulate Matter: They are categorized according to size, source or physical state. Dusts mist, aerosols, smog, pollen spares, cysts and bacteria etc, are the example of particular matter. Metal dust containing lead, chromium, Nickel, arsenic, cadmium, zinc etc., asbestos fibers from asbestos industry and cotton dust from textile mills are added to the air. They cause respiratory trouble, 1976 about 3000 workers out of 1000 working in the Indraprastha Power House, Delhi were found to be suffering from Tuber Celosias due to continued inhalation of fly ash discharge from chimneys of the plant. Asthma and bronchitis cases have increased many folds at Bhatinda around the thermal plant. Combustion of petroleum in automobiles, burning of coal and wastage and pesticides spraying emit particulate led component, which affects central nervous system. it also to distort and blood cells. Acute lead poisoning causes stupor (Dazed state), then coma and finally death.
Aerosols are the chemical released into the air with force as vapor. These include chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) present in emissions from the fat airplanes and Nitrogen dioxide and Sulphur Dioxide present in the emission of the Supersonic aero planes.
Smog causes effect on man, animals and plants and cracking of rubber. It produce respiratory problem in human.
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